Oil, graphite pencil on canvas
60 1/4 x 36 1/4 in. (153 x 92.1 cm)
Neither signed nor dated
Classification: painting


In this catalogue paintings are classified as follows:

Painting is a work with acrylic and/or oil on canvas or on another two-dimensional support (canvas board, wood panel, etc.)

Painting (mural) is a large-scale painting, historically called "mural"

Painting on paper describes a work in acrylic, oil or watercolor on paper or board


Lichtenstein usually signed and dated a painting on the verso around the time it was finished, inventoried or shipped to a gallery or storage. Some pre-Pop paintings were dated in code (e.g., RLCR 502). 

See also: 8. DATES

Media Lines

Described are all media visible on a painting's recto. Paint is listed first, followed by graphite pencil where present, followed by the support. An inscription's medium is given beneath the media line if different from the painting media.

Acrylic and Oil Paints

The painting media lines in this catalogue are rarely based on technical analysis by a museum or a conservator. They are mostly informed by conversations with the artist's studio assistants, by examination of paint jars and tubes that were kept after the artist's death and by RLF records or Leo Castelli Gallery files. 

In this catalogue, all types of acrylic paint are listed as "acrylic" and all types of oil paint as "oil."

Historically, the brand name "Magna" (acrylic dispersion paint by Bocour Artist Colors, Inc.) has been used to describe all of Lichtenstein's acrylic. RLF records and technical analysis by art museums confirm that the artist did not only use Magna, but at times Liquitex acrylic emulsion paint and, later, Golden Artist Colors acrylic dispersion paint. When Magna production stopped in c. 1990, Lichtenstein bought up large amounts of Magna. He also reached out to Golden who worked with him to devise custom MSA colors in Lichtenstein's hallmark hues.      

Pop paintings and later works were usually painted with both acrylic and oil. It is assumed that around 1962, Lichtenstein experimented with Liquitex and Magna before adopting Magna as the main medium. For paintings of 1962–63, media lines are informed by notes on RL Studio Cards and/or in the Leo Castelli Gallery inventory. In rare instances, media lines were written by the artist on the verso of a work (e.g., RLCR 691). For paintings of 1964 and beyond, solid colors are assumed to be acrylic and dots and diagonals oil. However, it is possible that Lichtenstein continued his experimentation with paints through and after 1964.

Graphite Pencil Underdrawing

A closer look at Lichtenstein's paintings reveals that graphite pencil underdrawing and palimpsest is visible in most of them, starting in the 1960s. Nevertheless, pencil has not historically been mentioned in the related media lines. Due to the artist's well-known intention that his work not appear "too finished," this catalogue includes pencil in media lines. If in question from examination report results or other documentation, the presence of graphite pencil is assumed. When a researcher's examination report confirms that pencil is not visible, it is not included. 

Painting: Other Mediums and Techniques

Different types of canvas are not described. A regular type used was #10 cotton duck from New York Central Art Supply. Circular canvases were at least partially ordered there as well. Earlier paintings' canvases are typically finer and sometimes described as "linen" in studio records. 

In the Imperfect/Perfect and Entablature paintings, grainy areas are visible. Lichtenstein created this texture by adding beach sand, usually to a thick white underlayer over which he applied the final color. 

This reductive technique of line-making is found in about 25 pre-Pop paintings. 

Stretchers are not included in media lines. Lebron stretchers were standard orders from c. 1972 on, and were typically delivered assembled. A different stretcher brand was introduced once and quickly abandoned.  

Strip frames
Strip frames are not included in media lines. Slightly raised above the edges, strip frames served as a practical protection during shipment and storage movements and were routinely added to paintings at least from the time James dePasquale became Lichtenstein's assistant.   

Painting on Paper: Other Mediums and Techniques

Masking out
Masking techniques are indicated, but the material used (e.g., frisket, small objects) is not identified (e.g., RLCR 219).

Watercolor application
When it is applied in multiple ways, watercolor application method is described, otherwise brush is implied. For example, see RLCR 365, “Watercolor, brushed, smudged by hand and sprayed, with masking out, graphite pencil on paper." 


Painting dimensions are given from canvas edge to canvas edge, excluding original wood strip frames nailed to the edges. 

For multi-panel paintings, if panels are joined, overall dimensions and dimensions of each canvas are given. If panels are separate, only panel dimensions are provided since overall dimensions vary by installation. Lichtenstein usually suggested a distance of approximately 7 inches between canvases for installation. This fact informed spacing of related images in the catalogue entries (e.g., RLCR 1635). 

See also: 10. DIMENSIONS

Signature, Inscriptions, Marks

The artist usually signed and dated his paintings on the canvas verso in charcoal and applied a spray fixative before sending it to a gallery or storage.  

Pre-Pop paintings are often signed or initialed on the recto in oil, or inscribed with the artist's name and other tombstone information on the stretcher or tacking margin. 

See also: 11. INSCRIPTIONS

Read more: Guide to the Catalogue
Print this page

Catalogue entry

Artwork: Girl with Ball, 1961 (RLCR 634) Photo: Courtesy MoMA
RLCR 634 (LC 1; RL 1190)
Girl with Ball
Title Source
Castelli; RL Studio Card
Alternate title and source: Girl with Beach Ball (RL Register)
Oil, graphite pencil on canvas
60 1/4 x 36 1/4 in. (153 x 92.1 cm)
Neither signed nor dated
Photo: Courtesy MoMA
Collection Leo Castelli, New York City, November 1961 (artist sale)
Philip Johnson, May 1962
Leo Castelli Gallery (4 East 77th Street), New York, An Exhibition in Progress, September 22–October 14, 1961.
Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, Pop! Goes the Easel, April 4–30, 1963 (MacAgy 1963).
Pace Gallery (9 West 57th Street), New York, First International Girlie Exhibit, January 7–25, 1964. Traveled to: Pace Gallery, Boston, February 16–March 11, 1964.
Tate Gallery, London, '54–'64: Painting and Sculpture of a Decade, April 22–June 28, 1964 (Calouste Gulbenkian 1964, no. 263 n.p. facing p. 212 b/w ill.).
Vassar College Art Gallery, Poughkeepsie, New York, Art Since 1923: An Exhibition in Honor of Agnes Rindge, May 5–June 16, 1965 (McCormicK 1965).
National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, Two Decades of American Painting, October 15–November 27, 1966 (only Tokyo, Kyoto) (National Museum of Modern Art 1966). Traveled to: National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto, Japan, December 10, 1966–January 22, 1967; Lalit Kala Academy, New Delhi, March 25–April 15, 1967 (Lalit Kala 1967); National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, June 6–July 8, 1967 (NGV and AGNSW 1967); Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, July 17–August 20, 1967 (NGV and AGNSW 1967).
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Roy Lichtenstein, September 19–November 9, 1969 (not Seattle, Columbus) (Waldman 1969, no. 2 p. 24 b/w ill.). Traveled to: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, Kansas City, Missouri, December 18, 1969–January 16, 1970; Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, February 7–March 22, 1970; Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, April 10–May 17, 1970; Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, Columbus, Ohio, July 9–August 30, 1970.
Museum of Modern Art, New York, High and Low: Modern Art and Popular Culture, October 7, 1990–January 15, 1991 (Varnedoe and Gopnik 1990a); (Varnedoe and Gopnik 1990b). Traveled to: Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, February 23–May 12, 1991; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, June 21–September 15, 1991.
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective, October 7, 1993–January 16, 1994 (only New York, Los Angeles, Montreal) (Waldman 1993b, no. 46 n.p. facing p. 49 color ill.). Traveled to: Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, January 26–April 3, 1994; Musée des Beaux-Arts de Montréal, Montreal, May 26–September 5, 1994; Haus der Kunst, Munich, October 13, 1994–January 9, 1995 (included early works) (Waldman 1994, no. 46 n.p. facing p. 49 color ill.); Deichtorhallen, Hamburg, Germany, February 8–April 30, 1995 (included early works) (Waldman 1994, no. 46 n.p. facing p. 49 color ill.); Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, June 2–September 3, 1995 (included early works) (Waldman 1994, no. 46 n.p. facing p. 49 color ill.); Wexner Center for the Arts, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, September 21, 1995–January 7, 1996 (abridged version) (Waldman 1994, no. 46 n.p. facing p. 49 color ill.).
Museum of Modern Art, New York, MoMA 2000: Making Choices: Walker Evans and Company, March 16–August 22, 2000 (only New York; not in cat.) (Galassi 2000). Traveled to: J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, July 10–September 16, 2001 (as Walker Evans and Company: Works from the Museum of Modern Art).
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, The Heroic Century: The Museum of Modern Art's Masterpieces, 200 Paintings and Sculptures, September 21, 2003–January 4, 2004 (Elderfield 2003, p. 280 color ill.). Traveled to: Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin, February 18–September 19, 2004 (as MoMA in Berlin: Masterworks from The Museum of Modern Art).
Berg, Paul. "About-Face from the Abstract." St. Louis Post-Dispatch Sunday Pictures, December 31, 1961, p. 10 b/w ill. (as Beachball; with artist and Leo Castelli).
"The Art of Lichtenstein." Scene (New York) 8, no. 4 (August 1962), p. 42 b/w ill.
Alfieri, Bruno. "USA: Verso la fine della pittura 'astratta'?/Vers la fin de la peinture 'abstraite'?/Towards the End of 'Abstract' Painting?" Metro (Milan), nos. 4–5 (May 1962), no. 19 p. 10 b/w ill.
Kozloff, Max. "Pop Culture, Metaphysical Disgust, and the New Vulgarians." Art International 6, no. 2 (March 1962), p. 36 b/w ill.
Lerman, Leo. "The Village Idea." Mademoiselle 55, no. 2 (June 1962), no. 1 p. 70 b/w ill. (with artist).
"Everything Clear Now?" Newsweek 59, no. 9 (February 26, 1962), p. 87 b/w ill.
Tono, Yoshiaki, ed. "Statements by Contemporary Artists." Mizue (Tokyo), no. 700 (June 1963), p. 28 b/w ill.
Melville, Robert. "Prospect for the Future." Architectural Review 136, no. 810 (August 1964), no. 3 p. 135 b/w ill.
Lippard, Lucy R. Pop Art. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1966, no. 63 n.p. facing p. 80 b/w ill.
Whitney, David. "La galerie souterraine de Philip Johnson." Quadrum (Brussels), no. 20 (1967), p. 158 b/w ill.
Kerber, Bernhard. Roy Lichtenstein: Ertrinkendes Mädchen. Stuttgart: Reclam, 1970, no. 2a n.p. following p. 16 b/w ill.
Waldman, Diane. Roy Lichtenstein. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1971, no. 7 n.p. color ill.
Lipman, Jean, and Richard Marshall. Art About Art. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1978. Exhibition catalogue (1978 New York Whitney), p. 154 b/w ill. [not exhibited].
Keller, Jean-Pierre. Pop art et évidence du quotidien. Lausanne: L’Âge d’Homme, 1979, p. 135 b/w ill.
Bouniort, Jeanne. Le pop'art: le pop'art anglais et le pop'art américain. Actualité des arts plastiques 49. Paris: Centre National de Documentation Pédagogique, 1980, p. 16 b/w ill.
Russell, John. The Meanings of Modern Art. New York: Museum of Modern Art and Harper and Row, 1981, p. 347 b/w ill.
Cowart, Jack. Roy Lichtenstein 1970–1980. New York: Hudson Hills Press in association with the St. Louis Art Museum, 1981. Exhibition catalogue (1981 St. Louis Art Museum), p. 110 b/w ill. [not exhibited].
Cowart, Jack. Roy Lichtenstein 1970–1980. Translated from the English by Nicolas Hepp. Munich: Prestel Verlag, 1982. Exhibition catalogue (1981 St. Louis Art Museum), no. 100 p. 110 b/w ill. [not exhibited].
Cowart, Jack. Roy Lichtenstein 1970–1980. Translated from the English by Stefania Coppi. Florence: Electa, 1982. Exhibition catalogue (1981 St. Louis Art Museum), p. 62 b/w ill. [not exhibited].
Cowart, Jack. Roy Lichtenstein 1970–1980. Tokyo: Seibu Museum of Art, 1983. Exhibition catalogue (1981 St. Louis Art Museum), p. 106 b/w ill. [not exhibited].
Alloway, Lawrence. Roy Lichtenstein. New York: Abbeville Press, 1983, no. 9 p. 17 color ill.
De Coppet, Laura, and Alan Jones, eds. The Art Dealers. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1984, p. 95 b/w ill.
Sgan-Cohen, Michael. "Lichtenstein in Tel Aviv." Yediot Aharonot: Weekly Supplement (Tel Aviv) 11, no. 1241 (November 13, 1987), p. 31 b/w ill.
Busche, Ernst A. Roy Lichtenstein: Das Frühwerk, 1942–1960. Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1988, fig. 137 p. 234 b/w ill.
Hendrickson, Janis. Roy Lichtenstein. Cologne: Benedikt Taschen, 1988, n.p. facing p. 25 color ill.
Busche, Ernst A. Roy Lichtenstein: Pop-Paintings, 1961–1969. Schirmer's visuelle Bibliothek 6. Munich: Schirmer/Mosel, 1989, no. 3 n.p. color ill.
Osterwold, Tilman. Pop Art. Cologne: Benedikt Taschen, 1989, n.p. facing p. 184 color ill.
Berri, Claude. Claude Berri recontre Leo Castelli. Edited by Ann Hindry. Paris: Renn, 1990, p. 44 b/w ill.
Livingstone, Marco. Pop Art: A Continuing History. 1st ed. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990, no. 98 p. 73 color ill.
Hindry, Ann, ed. Artstudio. Special issue, Roy Lichtenstein, no. 20 (Spring 1991), p. 22 b/w ill.
Contemporary Great Masters: Roy Lichtenstein. Tokyo: Kodansha Ltd., 1992, no. 60 p. 89 color ill.
Hendra, Tony. Brad '61: Portrait of the Artist As a Young Man. New York: Pantheon Books, 1993, p. 61 color ill.
"A Stroll Up the Ramp with Roy Lichtenstein." New York Times, October 31, 1993, p. H39 b/w ill.
Richardson, Elizabeth. "Those Lichtenstein Women." Harper's Bazaar 126, no. 3383 (October 1993), no. 4 p. 235 color ill.
Waldman, Diane. Roy Lichtenstein. Rizzoli Art Series. New York: Rizzoli, 1993, no. 1 color ill.
Bode, Peter M. "Roy Lichtenstein: Am Anfang war der Comic Strip." Art: Das Kunstmagazin (Hamburg), no. 10 (October 1994), p. 28 color ill.
Lichtenstein, Roy, Jürgen Hohmeyer, and Matthias Matussek, eds. "Ich lass' nur die Kleider weg." Der Spiegel (Hamburg), no. 41 (October 10, 1994), p. 236 color ill.
Kelleher, Karen. "Roy Lichtenstein: The Controversy Pop's." Hamptons (Southampton, N.Y.) (May 31, 1996), b/w ill.
Hendricks, Norine S. "Pop Goes the Artist: Roy Lichtenstein." Timeline (Columbus: Ohio Historical Society) 17, no. 5 (September–October 2000), p. 18 color ill.
Serafini, Giuliano. Art e Dossier. Special issue, Lichtenstein (Milan), no. 152 (January 2000), p. 26 color ill.
Collins, Bradford R. "Modern Romance: Lichtenstein's Comic Book Paintings." American Art (New York) 17, no. 2 (Summer 2003), no. 5 p. 66 color ill., front cover color ill. (cropped).
Fedders, Kristin Utter. "Pop Art at the 1964/65 New York World's Fair." PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 2005, no. 86 p. 306 ill.
Doris, Sara Kathleen. Pop Art and the Contest over American Culture. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2007, no. 31 p. 192 b/w ill.
Fundación Juan March, Madrid. Roy Lichtenstein: Beginning to End. Madrid: Fundación Juan March, 2007. Exhibition catalogue (2005 Cuenca Arte Abstracto), p. 72 color ill. [not exhibited].
Fundación Juan March, Madrid. Roy Lichtenstein: De principio a fin. Madrid: Fundación Juan March, 2007. Exhibition catalogue (2005 Cuenca Arte Abstracto), p. 72 color ill. [not exhibited].
Fundación Juan March, Madrid. Roy Lichtenstein: Évolution. Translated from the English by Delphine Billaut, Isabelle Choque, Aude Pasquier, and Maïca Sanconie. Madrid: Fundación Juan March; Paris: Pinacothèque de Paris, 2007. Exhibition catalogue (2005 Cuenca Arte Abstracto), p. 72 color ill. [not exhibited].
Bader, Graham. Hall of Mirrors: Roy Lichtenstein and the Face of Painting in the 1960s. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2010, no. 0.4 p. xxvi b/w ill. , no. 3.7 p. 93 b/w ill. (detail), back cover color ill.
Dunne, Nathan. Roy Lichtenstein. London: Tate, 2012. Exhibition catalogue (2012 Chicago Art Institute), no. 22 p. 29 color ill. [not exhibited].
Dunne, Nathan. Roy Lichtenstein. Translated from the English by Sarah Dali. London: Tate, 2013. Exhibition catalogue (2012 Chicago Art Institute), no. 22 p. 29 color ill. [not exhibited].
Faton-Boyancé, Jeanne, ed. L'objet d'art. Special issue, Roy Lichtenstein exposition au Centre Pompidou, no. 69 (July 2013), p. 17 color ill.
Entry Updated October 26, 2023