Oil, graphite pencil on canvas
68 1/16 x 80 1/16 in. (172.9 x 203.4 cm)
Signed and dated verso lining, upper left: rf Lichtenstein / ''62 [sic; not by artist]
Classification: painting

Painting

In this catalogue paintings are classified as follows:

Painting is a work with acrylic and/or oil on canvas or on another two-dimensional support (canvas board, wood panel, etc.)

Painting (mural) is a large-scale painting, historically called "mural"

Painting on paper describes a work in acrylic, oil or watercolor on paper or board

Dates

Lichtenstein usually signed and dated a painting on the verso around the time it was finished, inventoried or shipped to a gallery or storage. Some pre-Pop paintings were dated in code (e.g., RLCR 502). 

See also: 8. DATES

Media Lines

Described are all media visible on a painting's recto. Paint is listed first, followed by graphite pencil where present, followed by the support. An inscription's medium is given beneath the media line if different from the painting media.

Acrylic and Oil Paints

The painting media lines in this catalogue are rarely based on technical analysis by a museum or a conservator. They are mostly informed by conversations with the artist's studio assistants, by examination of paint jars and tubes that were kept after the artist's death and by RLF records or Leo Castelli Gallery files. 

In this catalogue, all types of acrylic paint are listed as "acrylic" and all types of oil paint as "oil."

Historically, the brand name "Magna" (acrylic dispersion paint by Bocour Artist Colors, Inc.) has been used to describe all of Lichtenstein's acrylic. RLF records and technical analysis by art museums confirm that the artist did not only use Magna, but at times Liquitex acrylic emulsion paint and, later, Golden Artist Colors acrylic dispersion paint. When Magna production stopped in c. 1990, Lichtenstein bought up large amounts of Magna. He also reached out to Golden who worked with him to devise custom MSA colors in Lichtenstein's hallmark hues.      

Pop paintings and later works were usually painted with both acrylic and oil. It is assumed that around 1962, Lichtenstein experimented with Liquitex and Magna before adopting Magna as the main medium. For paintings of 1962–63, media lines are informed by notes on RL Studio Cards and/or in the Leo Castelli Gallery inventory. In rare instances, media lines were written by the artist on the verso of a work (e.g., RLCR 691). For paintings of 1964 and beyond, solid colors are assumed to be acrylic and dots and diagonals oil. However, it is possible that Lichtenstein continued his experimentation with paints through and after 1964.

Graphite Pencil Underdrawing

A closer look at Lichtenstein's paintings reveals that graphite pencil underdrawing and palimpsest is visible in most of them, starting in the 1960s. Nevertheless, pencil has not historically been mentioned in the related media lines. Due to the artist's well-known intention that his work not appear "too finished," this catalogue includes pencil in media lines. If in question from examination report results or other documentation, the presence of graphite pencil is assumed. When a researcher's examination report confirms that pencil is not visible, it is not included. 

Painting: Other Mediums and Techniques

Canvas
Different types of canvas are not described. A regular type used was #10 cotton duck from New York Central Art Supply. Circular canvases were at least partially ordered there as well. Earlier paintings' canvases are typically finer and sometimes described as "linen" in studio records. 

Sand
In the Imperfect/Perfect and Entablature paintings, grainy areas are visible. Lichtenstein created this texture by adding beach sand, usually to a thick white underlayer over which he applied the final color. 

Sgraffito
This reductive technique of line-making is found in about 25 pre-Pop paintings. 

Stretchers
Stretchers are not included in media lines. Lebron stretchers were standard orders from c. 1972 on, and were typically delivered assembled. A different stretcher brand was introduced once and quickly abandoned.  

Strip frames
Strip frames are not included in media lines. Slightly raised above the edges, strip frames served as a practical protection during shipment and storage movements and were routinely added to paintings at least from the time James dePasquale became Lichtenstein's assistant.   

Painting on Paper: Other Mediums and Techniques

Masking out
Masking techniques are indicated, but the material used (e.g., frisket, small objects) is not identified (e.g., RLCR 219).

Watercolor application
When it is applied in multiple ways, watercolor application method is described, otherwise brush is implied. For example, see RLCR 365, “Watercolor, brushed, smudged by hand and sprayed, with masking out, graphite pencil on paper." 

Dimensions

Painting dimensions are given from canvas edge to canvas edge, excluding original wood strip frames nailed to the edges. 

For multi-panel paintings, if panels are joined, overall dimensions and dimensions of each canvas are given. If panels are separate, only panel dimensions are provided since overall dimensions vary by installation. Lichtenstein usually suggested a distance of approximately 7 inches between canvases for installation. This fact informed spacing of related images in the catalogue entries (e.g., RLCR 1635). 

See also: 10. DIMENSIONS

Signature, Inscriptions, Marks

The artist usually signed and dated his paintings on the canvas verso in charcoal and applied a spray fixative before sending it to a gallery or storage.  

Pre-Pop paintings are often signed or initialed on the recto in oil, or inscribed with the artist's name and other tombstone information on the stretcher or tacking margin. 

See also: 11. INSCRIPTIONS

Read more: Guide to the Catalogue
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Catalogue entry

Artwork: Blam, 1962 (RLCR 676)
RLCR 676 (LC 21; RL 0070)
Blam
1962
Title Source
Castelli; RL Register; RL Studio Card
Media
Oil, graphite pencil on canvas
Dimensions
68 1/16 x 80 1/16 in. (172.9 x 203.4 cm)
Inscriptions
Signed and dated verso lining, upper left: rf Lichtenstein / ''62 [sic; not by artist]
Remarks

This painting was relined at an unknown date, then signed in an unknown hand, possibly to replace a signature covered by the lining. 

Keyword
Cartoons
Provenance
Richard Brown Baker, New York City, January 1962 (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City)
Exhibitions
Leo Castelli Gallery (4 East 77th Street), New York, Roy Lichtenstein, February 10–March 3, 1962.
Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, New Realists, October 31–December 1, 1962 (Janis 1962, no. 37 b/w ill.).
Jewett Arts Center, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts, The Richard Brown Baker Collection of Contemporary Art, May 5–26, 1963 (Phelps 1963, b/w ill.).
Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, Four Centuries of American Art, November 27, 1963–January 19, 1964 (Selvig 1963, ill.).
Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, Rhode Island, Paintings and Constructions of the 1960's Selected from the Richard Brown Baker Collection, October 2–25, 1964 (RISD 1964, p. 29 b/w ill.).
Larry Aldrich Museum, Ridgefield, Connecticut, Art of the 50's and 60's: Selections from the Richard Brown Baker Collection, April 25–July 5, 1965 (Aldrich Museum 1965, no. 60 b/w ill.).
Brooks Memorial Art Gallery, Memphis, Tennessee, Brooks Memorial Art Gallery Golden Anniversary: Fifty Years of American Painting Since the Armory Show, April 13–28, 1966 (Brooks Memorial Art Gallery 1966, p. 39 b/w ill.).
Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Works by Roy Lichtenstein, November 29, 1966–January 3, 1967 (Henning 1966).
Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico City, Exhibition of Selected Works of World Art in the Olympic Games Art Festival, October 7–November 30, 1968 (XIX Olympiade 1969, p. 205 color ill.).
Sala Dalles, Bucharest, Romania, Dispariția și reapariția imaginii: pictura americană de după 1945 / The Disappearance and Reappearance of the Image: American Painting Since 1945, January 17–February 2, 1969 (National Collection of Fine Arts 1969a). Traveled to: Muzeul Banatului, Timisoara, Romania, February 14–March 1, 1969; Galeria de Artă, Cluj, Romania, March 14–April 2, 1969; Slovenská Národná Galéria, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, April 14–June 15, 1969 (National Collection of Fine Arts 1969b); Veletržní palác, Národní galerie v Praze, Prague, July 3–August 18, 1969 (National Collection of Fine Arts 1969b); Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, October 21–November 16, 1969 (Palais des Beaux-Arts 1969).
Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art, February 9–March 4, 1972 (Janis 1972a, b/w ill.).
San Francisco Museum of Art, San Francisco, A Selection of American and European Paintings from the Richard Brown Baker Collection, September 14–November 11, 1973 (San Francisco Museum 1973, no. 36 b/w ill.). Traveled to: Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., December 7, 1973–January 27, 1974.
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, American Pop Art, April 6–June 16, 1974 (Alloway 1974, no. 8 n.p. color ill.).
Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut, Richard Brown Baker Collects! A Selection of Contemporary Art from the Richard Brown Baker Collection, April 24–June 22, 1975 (Yale 1975, no. 21 p. 67 b/w ill, front cover color ill.).
National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., America As Art, April 30–October 3, 1976 (Taylor, Joshua 1976, p. 298 b/w ill.).
Squibb Gallery, Princeton, New Jersey, Selections from the Collection of Richard Brown Baker, October 4–November 11, 1979 (Baker, R. 1979).
Akron Art Museum, Akron, Ohio, The Image in American Painting and Sculpture, 1950–1980, September 12–November 8, 1981 (Danoff and Carr 1981, no. 8 p. 31 color ill.).
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, Blam! The Explosion of Pop, Minimalism, and Performance, 1958–1964, September 20–December 2, 1984 (Haskell 1984, no. 117 p. 85 b/w ill.).
Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, Rhode Island, Fortissimo! Thirty Years from the Richard Brown Baker Collection of Contemporary Art, March 1–April 28, 1985 (Baker, R. 1985, no. 84 p. 68 ill.). Traveled to: San Diego Museum of Art, San Diego, Calif., June 29–August 11, 1985; Portland Art Museum, Portland, Ore., October 2–November 10, 1985.
Royal Academy of Arts, London, Pop Art, September 13–December 15, 1991 (not Madrid, Montreal) (Livingstone 1991a, no. 149 p. 94 color ill.). Traveled to: Museum Ludwig, Cologne, January 23–April 19, 1992 (Livingstone 1992c, no. 44 color ill.); Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, June 16–September 14, 1992. (Livingstone 1992a); Musée des Beaux-Arts de Montréal, Montreal, October 23, 1992–January 24, 1993 (revised and re-organized with a selection of prints) (Livingstone 1992b).
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective, October 7, 1993–January 16, 1994 (not Columbus) (Waldman 1993b, no. 81 n.p. facing p. 93 color ill.). Traveled to: Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, Calif., January 26–April 3, 1994; Musée des Beaux-Arts de Montréal, Montreal, May 26–September 5, 1994; Haus der Kunst, Munich, October 13, 1994–January 9, 1995 (included early works) (Waldman 1994, no. 81 n.p. facing p. 93 color ill.); Deichtorhallen, Hamburg, Germany, February 8–April 30, 1995 (included early works) (Waldman 1994, no. 81 n.p. facing p. 93 color ill.); Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, June 2–September 3, 1995 (included early works) (Waldman 1994, no. 81 n.p. facing p. 93 color ill.); Wexner Center for the Arts, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, September 21, 1995–January 7, 1996 (abridged version) (Waldman 1994, no. 81 n.p. facing p. 93 color ill.).
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, The American Century: Art and Culture, 1900–2000 (Part II, 1950–2000), September 26, 1999–February 13, 2000 (Phillips, L. 1999, no. 207 p. 134 color ill.).
Literature
"The Art of Lichtenstein." Scene (New York) 8, no. 4 (August 1962), pp. 42–43 b/w ill. (installation view, 1962a New York Castelli).
"The New Realists: Pacesetters or Passés?" Art Students League News 15, no. 9 (December 1962), b/w ill.
Kozloff, Max. "Pop Culture, Metaphysical Disgust, and the New Vulgarians." Art International 6, no. 2 (March 1962), p. 36 b/w ill.
"Which Twin Is the Phony?" Show 3, no. 2 (February 1963), p. 88 b/w ill.
Clark, Anthony M. "The Changing Past of American Art." Art Gallery (Ivoryton, Conn.) 7, no. 3 (December 1963), p. 13 b/w ill.
Picabia, Francis, Theodore Roosevelt, and Brian O'Doherty. "1913 The Armory Show, 1963 Pop Art: The Avant-Garde Fifty Years Later." Harper's Bazaar 96, no. 3016 (March 1963), no. 3 p. 158 color ill. (blue, upside down).
Sottsass, Ettore, Jr. "Dada, New Dada, New Realists." Domus, no. 399 (February 1963), p. 30 b/w ill. (installation view, 1962 New York Janis).
Boatto, Alberto, and Giordano Falzoni, eds. Fantazaria (Rome). Special issue, Lichtenstein 1, no. 2 (July–August 1966), n.p. facing p. 14 b/w ill.
Hunter, Sam. "Art Since 1945." In New Art Around the World: Painting and Sculpture, by Will Grohmann and Sam Hunter. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1966, no. 16 n.p. facing p. 57 color ill.
Johnson, Ellen H. "Paradoxen hos Lichtenstein." Konstrevy (Stockholm) 42, nos. 5–6 (1966), p. 227 b/w ill.
Lichtenstein, Roy, and Colette Roberts. "Interview de Roy Lichtenstein." Aujourd'hui: Art et architecture 10, nos. 55–56 (December 1966–January 1967), no. 2 p. 125 b/w ill.
Crespo, Ángel. Roy Lichtenstein y el arte pop. Mayagüez: Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1970. Exhibition catalogue (1970 Mayagüez Universidad de Puerto Rico), no. 3 n.p. b/w ill. [not exhibited].
Crespo, Ángel. "Roy Lichtenstein y el arte pop." Revista de arte/The Art Review (Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez), no. 5 (June 1970), no. 3 p. 11 b/w ill.
Waldman, Diane. Roy Lichtenstein. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1971, no. 19 n.p. b/w ill.
Alloway, Lawrence. "On Style: An Examination of Roy Lichtenstein's Development." Artforum 10, no. 7 (March 1972), p. 53 b/w ill.
Iida, Yoshikuni. "Roy Lichtenstein: Paradoxical pictures, or, critiquing critical pictures." Arts quarterly 6, no. 3, issue 22 (summer 1972), p. 77 b/w ill.
Coplans, John, ed. Roy Lichtenstein. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972, no. 18 n.p. b/w ill.
Baldwin, Carl R. "On The Nature of Pop." Artforum 12, no. 10 (June 1974), p. 34 color ill.
Hughes, Robert. "The Instant Nostalgia of Pop." Time 103, no. 15 (April 15, 1974), p. 81 color ill.
Perreault, John. "'Classic' Pop Revisited." Art in America 62, no. 2 (March–April 1974), p. 67 color ill.
Rose, Barbara. American Art Since 1900. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975, no. 8-8 p. 191 b/w ill.
Kuspit, Donald. "Pop Art: A Reactionary Realism." Art Journal 36, no. 1 (Fall 1976), no. 1 p. 32 b/w ill. (flopped).
Dubreuil-Blondin, Nicole. La Fonction critique dans le Pop Art américain. Montreal: Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 1980, no. 41 n.p. b/w ill.
Boatto, Alberto. Grande Opere: Pop Art. Rome: Editori Laterza, 1983, no. 97 n.p. b/w ill.
Chávarri, Raúl. "Lichtenstein y Warhol." Cuadernos hispanoamericanos (Madrid), no. 398 (August 1983), n.p. facing p. 395 b/w ill. (flopped).
Alloway, Lawrence. Roy Lichtenstein. New York: Abbeville Press, 1983, no. 15 p. 21 color ill.
Busche, Ernst A. Roy Lichtenstein: Pop-Paintings, 1961–1969. Schirmer's visuelle Bibliothek 6. Munich: Schirmer/Mosel, 1989, no. 16 n.p. color ill.
RA Magazine. Special issue, Pop, no. 32 (Fall 1991), pp. 24–25 color ill. (double spread).
Hindry, Ann, ed. Artstudio. Special issue, Roy Lichtenstein, no. 20 (Spring 1991), n.p. preceding p. 160 b/w ill.
Kodansha Ltd. Contemporary Great Masters: Roy Lichtenstein. Tokyo: Kodansha Ltd., 1992, no. 7 n.p. color ill.
Lösel, Anja (Photographs by Thomas Höpker). "Pop Art: Die alten Meister." Stern (Hamburg) 45, no. 13 (March 19, 1992), pp. 58–59 color ill. (double spread).
Livingstone, Marco, ed. Arte Pop. Madrid: Museo Nacional Reina Sofía, 1992. Exhibition catalogue (1991 London Royal Academy), p. 77 color ill. [not exhibited].
Hendra, Tony. Brad '61: Portrait of the Artist As a Young Man. New York: Pantheon Books, 1993, p. 70 color ill.
Altshuler, Bruce. The Avant-Garde in Exhibition: New Art in the 20th Century. New York: Abrams, 1994, n.p. b/w ill. (installation view).
BT: Bijutsu techō (Tokyo). Special Issue, Roy Lichtenstein 60's–90's 46, no. 689 (June 1994), pp. 28–29 color ill. (double spread).
Baker, Richard Brown. "The Days and Nights of a Collector." Paris Review 41, no. 152 (Fall 1999), p. 183 b/w ill.
Becker, Wolfgang. I Love Pop: Europa—USA Anni '60: Mitologie del quotidiano. Milan: Electa, 1999. Exhibition catalogue (1999a Rome Chiostro del Bramante), p. 22 b/w ill. [not exhibited].
Farrell, Jennifer. "Reflections on a Gift: Richard Brown Baker and Roy Lichtenstein." Yale University Art Gallery Bulletin Recent Acquisitions (2008), no. 2 p. 49 color ill.
Reference Material
SRC 20070
All American Men of War
1962
Panel: 5 1/4 x 2 13/16 in. (13.3 x 7.1 cm)

Kanigher, Robert (editor). All American Men of War 89 (January–February 1962), National Periodical Publications, Inc. (DC).