Wool felt, originally two aluminum bars
<span class="gray">Per Castelli records:</span> 82 x 49 in. (208.3 x 124.5 cm) (banners examined by our researchers range from 75 1/2–82 1/4 in. in height and 38 1/2–49 in. in width)
Most banners are signed, numbered and dated on the bottom turn-back, with signature, date and numbering style varying from work to work within the edition in terms of extent, sequence, location, and orientation. Some banners are not signed at all. Banners have a publisher’s label affixed to the bottom turn-back with the exception of banner unkn04. (A June 1971 letter from Leo Castelli Gallery (RLF Archives) indicates that a signed and numbered publisher's label for this banner was shipped to the owners, but this label has been lost.) The publisher's label on the AP is a design variation used by Betsy Ross Flag and Banner Company for banners produced later. There are two banners numbered 5/20, which the authors catalogued as ed. 5/20[1] and ed. 5/20[2], and two banners numbered 7, which are catalogued as ed. 7/20[1] and ed. 7/20[2].
Classification: banner

Banner

Between 1964 and 1970 Betsy Ross Flag and Banner Company published four banner editions designed by Lichtenstein: RLCR 940, Pistol Banner; RLCR 1265, Night Seascape Banner; RLCR 1617, Thunderbolt Banner and RLCR 1892, Modular Banner.

Banners were originally issued with aluminum bars and published in advertised editions of 20. Original bars were often lost or discarded by the time of examination.

Edition Numbers

Most banners examined are signed and numbered on the bottom turn-back or on a publisher’s label affixed to the verso bottom. While the authors made every effort to identify edition numbers for unnumbered banners, or for banners missing the publisher’s label, this was often impossible. The affected items are catalogued with sequential numbers and the prefix “unkn.”

For some banners the authors found no paper trail, only trace documentation, such as comments in oral histories or other incomplete information. These pieces are recorded separately in Remarks. They may or may not correspond to banner entries with incomplete provenance. Banners marked with duplicate edition numbers are given additional numbers in brackets, e.g., 5/20[1] and 5/20[2].

Signatures and Inscriptions 

Extensive efforts have been made to document and transcribe signatures, inscriptions and relevant marks on all banners. In cases where the signature/inscription was not accessible, or where there is only indeterminate information from research (or lack thereof), external sources have been used to provide this information. In these cases, signature and transcription information is transcribed verbatim as found, set in quotation marks, then followed by named sources in brackets.

Entries include the shorthand reference Artnet for Artnet Price Database (published through artnet.com). Other reference sources are auction catalogues, which are identified by auction house and the related sale number in brackets.

Leo Castelli Gallery Inventory Numbers 

Leo Castelli Gallery’s registration system for Lichtenstein’s editioned works was not always consistent. Unique registry numbers for individual banners were solely assigned for the edition of Pistol Banner. The other three banner editions were inventoried with a single LC registry number. Pistol Banner does not have LC registry numbers assigned to all individual banners; those without an LC number were presumedly handled by other vendors.

Numbering exceptions are noted and described in the Remarks for each edition. 

Publisher and Fabricators  

Founded in 1963 by artist Robert Graham, Barbara Kulicke and Irvil “Sonny” Sloan, Betsy Ross Flag and Banner Company commissioned banner designs from a substantial number of artists, among them Andy Warhol, Marisol, Jim Dine, Robert Indiana, Tom Wesselman and Mel Ramos. In 1964, Marian Goodman joined the company (located then at 41 East 11th Street in New York).

Banners published by Betsy Ross Flag and Banner Company were fabricated at two commercial workshops: Abracrome, Inc., located at 18 East 16th Street, which specialized in creating college flags and flags for Olympic and Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) events (per Marian Goodman cited in Schwarz 2021, p. 10) and the Arista Flag and Banner Company, which specialized in creating advertising banners for “RCA Victor, Union Carbide, General Telephone, etc.” (Newsweek 1965).

In 1965, the four partners of Betsy Ross Flag and Banner Company, along with Ursula Kalish, opened Multiples, Inc., at 929 Madison Avenue, which operated as a gallery and publisher of artist’s multiples. Thereafter, Lichtenstein banners published by Betsy Ross Flag and Banner Company would be sold and distributed by Multiples, Inc., in addition to those sold through Leo Castelli Gallery. In 1977, Multiples, Inc., became part of the new Marian Goodman Gallery, founded by Marian Goodman. Marian Goodman Gallery would continue to operate Multiples, Inc., in a new shared location at 38 East 57th Street. Four years later the two entities moved to 24 West 57th Street.

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Catalogue entry

Artwork: Pistol Banner, 1964 (fabricated and published 1964) (RLCR 940) Photo: The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA / Art Resource, NY
RLCR 940 (LC 142, LC 150, LC 151, LC 152, LC 153, LC 154, LC 155, LC 156, LC 157, LC 158, LC 159, LC 160, LC 163, LC 164, LC 165, LC 166, LC 308, LC 309; RL 0229)
Pistol Banner
1964 (fabricated and published 1964)
Title Source
RLF
Alternate titles and sources: Pistol (Castelli; RL Studio Card); The Gun (RL Register)
Media
Wool felt, originally two aluminum bars
Dimensions
Per Castelli records: 82 x 49 in. (208.3 x 124.5 cm) (banners examined by our researchers range from 75 1/2–82 1/4 in. in height and 38 1/2–49 in. in width)
Description
Edition of 20 (per publisher's label); 2 banners with duplicate numbers; 1 AP; 4 banners catalogued as unkn01–04 whose edition numbers could not be identified. Further, the authors are aware of incomplete documentation for unlocated banners that may be from the edition of 20 (see Commentary).
Publisher: Betsy Ross Flag and Banner Company, New York

Fabricators: Abracrome, Inc., New York, and/or Arista Flag and Banner Company, New York
Inscriptions
Most banners are signed, numbered and dated on the bottom turn-back, with signature, date and numbering style varying from work to work within the edition in terms of extent, sequence, location, and orientation. Some banners are not signed at all. Banners have a publisher’s label affixed to the bottom turn-back with the exception of banner unkn04. (A June 1971 letter from Leo Castelli Gallery (RLF Archives) indicates that a signed and numbered publisher's label for this banner was shipped to the owners, but this label has been lost.) The publisher's label on the AP is a design variation used by Betsy Ross Flag and Banner Company for banners produced later. There are two banners numbered 5/20, which the authors catalogued as ed. 5/20[1] and ed. 5/20[2], and two banners numbered 7, which are catalogued as ed. 7/20[1] and ed. 7/20[2].
Ed. 940.AP
rf Lichtenstein A/P [on publisher's label affixed upside down]
Ed. 940.unkn01
Not signed, dated or numbered
Ed. 940.unkn02
[no information]
Ed. 940.unkn03
Not signed, dated or numbered
Ed. 940.unkn04
Not signed, dated or numbered
Ed. 940.1/20 (LC 142)
[no information]
Ed. 940.2/20 (LC 150)
rf Lichtenstein 2/20 1964
Ed. 940.3/20 (LC 151)
rf Lichtenstein 3/20 1964
Ed. 940.4/20 (LC 152)
[no information] [there exist two works in the edition labeled 5/20, which may be the reason no ed. 4/20 could be found]
Ed. 940.5/20[1] (LC 153)
[formerly] rf Lichtenstein 5/20 1964 [washed out during treatment in 2005]
Ed. 940.5/20[2] (LC 153)
rf Lichtenstein 5/20 1964 [upside down]
Ed. 940.6/20 (LC 154)
[no information]
Ed. 940.7/20[1]
7 [on publisher's label]
Ed. 940.7/20[2] (LC 155)
rf Lichtenstein 7/20 1964 [upside down]
Ed. 940.8/20 (LC 156)
[no information]
Ed. 940.9/20 (LC 157)
9/20 rf Lichtenstein 1964 [upside down]
Ed. 940.10/20 (LC 158)
[no information]
Ed. 940.11/20 (LC 159)
rf Lichtenstein 1964 11/20 [upside down]
Ed. 940.12/20 (LC 160)
rf Lichtenstein 1964 12/20
Ed. 940.13/20 (LC 163)
[no information]
Ed. 940.14/20 (LC 164)
[no information]
Ed. 940.15/20 (LC 165)
Not signed, dated or numbered
Ed. 940.16/20 (LC 166)
rf Lichtenstein 16/20 1964 [upside down]
Ed. 940.17/20
rf Lichtenstein 1964 17/20
Ed. 940.18/20 (LC 308)
Not signed, dated or numbered
Ed. 940.19/20
rf Lichtenstein 1964 19/20
Ed. 940.20/20 (LC 309)
[no information]
Remarks

Betsy Ross Flag and Banner Company initiated this edition in 1964. Documents in Leo Castelli Gallery archives indicate consignments and sales of Pistol Banner began as early as June 1964 and by October 1965 the edition was described as sold out (letter from Ivan Karp of Leo Castelli Gallery to Mrs. Jack Gilfoy, Indiana University Art Museum, October 26, 1965, Leo Castelli Gallery records, circa 1880-2000, bulk 1957–1999. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution). However, a list dated March 1977 from the manufacturer Abracrome, Inc., outlining fabrication costs for artists’ banners, includes a handwritten note listing Pistol Banner with a fabrication price of $550 (Marian Goodman Gallery Archives). It is therefore possible additional banners were manufactured by Multiples, Inc., after March 1977. 

The following list is a record of transactions or owner’s statements for which the authors were unable to identify an edition number. These editions may correspond to entries with incomplete provenance.   

1. Unidentified Pistol Banner purchased by Betty Asher from Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City via Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, by October 1964 (object file for ed. 8/20, letter from Nina Sutherland to Irving Blum, October 12, 1964, Leo Castelli Gallery records, circa 1880-2000, bulk 1957–1999. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution).

2. Unidentified Pistol Banner formerly owned by Irvil "Sonny" Sloan and gifted to Barbara Kulicke and later sold (oral history interview with Barbara Kulicke by Avis Berman, September 21, 2005, RLF Archives).

3. One or two unidentified editions of Pistol Banner owned by Hanford Yang which, according to his oral history, were ruined. Whether destroyed or sold is unclear (oral history interview with Hanford Yang by Avis Berman, October 28, 2011, RLF Archives).

4. Unidentified Pistol Banner loaned in 1968 to Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, for 1968 exhibition Violence in America, loaned either by Lo Giudice Gallery or by Muriel Kallis Newman (photocopied exhibition brochure in RLF Archives).

5. Unidentified Pistol Banner loaned by Multiples, Inc., to Documenta 4, 1968, Kassel, Germany (exhibition catalogue, vol. 2, p. 80).

6. Unidentified Pistol Banner purchased by Virginia Wright in the 1970s, later stolen from her gallery (per conversation with authors, June 2017).

7. Unidentified Pistol Banner owned by Ian and Geraldine Beck, New York City, offered by Geraldine Beck to Leo Castelli Gallery, September 22, 1975 (Leo Castelli Gallery records, circa 1880-2000, bulk 1957–1999. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution).

Photo: The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA / Art Resource, NY
Research Images
Pistol Banner, 1964 (fabricated and published 1964) (RLCR 940). AP: Signed publisher's label on verso
AP: Signed publisher's label on verso
Pistol Banner, 1964 (fabricated and published 1964) (RLCR 940). Ed. 5/20[1]: Inscription on verso in 2004, before treatment
Ed. 5/20[1]: Inscription on verso in 2004, before treatment
Pistol Banner, 1964 (fabricated and published 1964) (RLCR 940). 7/20[1]: Only known numbered publisher's label
7/20[1]: Only known numbered publisher's label
Pistol Banner, 1964 (fabricated and published 1964) (RLCR 940). Ed. 7/20[2]: Unnumbered publisher's label
Ed. 7/20[2]: Unnumbered publisher's label
Pistol Banner, 1964 (fabricated and published 1964) (RLCR 940). Ed. 12/20: Publisher's label and inscription
Ed. 12/20: Publisher's label and inscription
Related Works
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Provenance
Ed. 940.AP
Robert J. Denison, New York City, by May 1974
(...)
Sir James Stirling
(Christie's, New York, May 12, 2010, sale 2315, lot 196)
Ed. 940.unkn01
Mutliples, Inc. / Marian Goodman Gallery, New York
Ed. 940.unkn02
(...)
Foster Goldstrom Gallery, San Francisco
Janice and Alan Lipton, Miami, c. mid-1980s
Ed. 940.unkn03
Private collection (via Multiples, Inc., New York)
(Christie's, New York, November 13, 1986, sale 6242, lot 305)
Ed. 940.unkn04
Mr. and Mrs. Ivan Karp, New York City
Private collection, Paris, by 1971 (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City; via Galerie Ileana Sonnabend, Paris)
Ed. 940.2/20 (LC 150)
A. James Speyer, Chicago [owner deceased November 1986]
Darthea Speyer, Hydra, Greece
Alexander C. Speyer III and Silvia Speyer, Pittsburgh, 2013 (by gift)
Ed. 940.3/20 (LC 151)
Patricia G. Millington, Los Angeles (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City; likely via Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles)
Ed. 940.5/20[1] (LC 153)
Collection David Lichtenstein and Mitchell Lichtenstein, 1964 (artist gift)
Ed. 940.5/20[2] (LC 153)
Garrick C. Stephenson, New York City
Max Palevsky, Los Angeles, prior to January 1980 [owner deceased 2010]
Ed. 940.6/20 (LC 154)
Mr. and Mrs. Bagley Wright, Seattle, Wash., October 1964 (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City)
Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City, 1978 (in exchange for an unknown artwork)
Ed. 940.7/20[1]
Irving Stenn, Jr., Chicago, 1986 (via Marian Goodman Gallery, New York City)
Ed. 940.7/20[2] (LC 155)
Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City
Irving Beck, New York City, c. 1996 (via Susan Lorence, New York City)
Phyllis Millstein, New York City (by descent)
Estate of Phyllis Millstein, March 2009
{Sotheby's, New York, September 22, 2011, sale N08766, lot 31}
(Sotheby's, New York, June 7, 2013, sale N09004, lot 15)
Wolfgang Roth Fine Art, Miami
Owner unknown
Ed. 940.8/20 (LC 156)
Owner unknown, c. October 1964 (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City; via Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles)
Ed. 940.9/20 (LC 157)
Philip Johnson, June 1964 (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City)
Ed. 940.10/20 (LC 158)
Jerrold Morris Gallery, Toronto, June 1965 (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City) [owner not located]
Ed. 940.11/20 (LC 159) Ed. 940.12/20 (LC 160)
Private Collection, Paris, 1967 (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City; via Galerie Ileana Sonnabend, Paris)
Ed. 940.13/20 (LC 163)
Albert A. List and Vera G. List, New York City, and Byram, Conn., October 1964 (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City)
(Christie's, New York, May 13, 1981, sale JÖRG–5055, lot 134)
Private collection
Ed. 940.14/20 (LC 164)
Richard Solomon, Boston, October 1964 (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City)
Owner unknown
Ed. 940.15/20 (LC 165)
Philip Johnson, October 1964 (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City)
Ed. 940.16/20 (LC 166)
Sven-Johan Spånberg, April 1965 (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City)
(...)
Sonnabend Gallery, New York City
Ed. 940.17/20
(...)
Private collection, Europe
(Sotheby's, New York, September 10, 2008, sale N08463, lot 34.)
Owner unknown
Ed. 940.18/20 (LC 308)
Mrs. Norman B. Champ [Anne Van Anden Champ], St. Louis, Mo., March 1966 (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City) [Norman B. Champ, Jr., c. 1977]
Judy Smith Champ, c. 2004 (by descent)
Estate of Judy Smith Champ, 2010
(Christie's, New York, March 11, 2011, sale 2421, lot 90)
Ed. 940.19/20
Donald and Lynn Factor, Beverly Hills, Calif. (via Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles)
(Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, November 18, 1970, sale 3118, lot 49)
The Gilbert and Lila Silverman Collection
Ed. 940.20/20 (LC 309)
Richard Weisman, June 1965 (via Leo Castelli Gallery, New York City)
Private collection (by gift)
Exhibitions
Southampton Art Gallery East (145 East 72nd Street), New York, Pop Art, August 28–September 15, 1964 (ed. 940.6/20 (LC 154)).
Jerrold Morris International Gallery, Toronto, New School of New York, October 7–24, 1964 (Jerrold Morris International Gallery 1964) (ed. 940.10/20 (LC 158)).
Portland Art Museum, Portland, Oregon, Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Bagley Wright: Twentieth Century American and European Paintings and Sculpture, November 8–December 6, 1964 (Portland Art Museum 1964) (ed. 940.6/20 (LC 154)).
Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, Banners, January 8–February 17, 1965 (ed. 940.7/20[2] (LC 155)).
Four Seasons restaurant, Seagram Building, New York, Pop and Circumstance: Benefit Exhibition and Sale for the National Association for Mental Health, New York State Association for Mental Health and the Mental Health Associations for New York City, March 14, 1965.
Andrew Dickson White Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, The Spring Festival of Contemporary Painting, April 13–May 16, 1965 (ed. 940.7/20[2] (LC 155)).
Hat Corporation of America Offices, New York, Hat Corporation of America Exhibition, June 1, 1965 (on view for one day) (ed. 940.18/20 (LC 308)).
Ravinia Festival, Highland Park, Illinois, Tenth Annual Ravinia Festival Art Exhibit: The New Look in Art: Illusion, Object, Motion, June 19–August 7, 1965 (ed. 940.18/20 (LC 308)).
Loeb Student Center, New York University, New York, Sports Festival, October 22–November 10, 1965 (ed. 940.18/20 (LC 308)).
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Op and Pop in Fabric, January 21–February 20, 1966.
Galerie Ileana Sonnabend (12 rue Mazarine), Paris, Electric Art, May 6–June 1966 (ed. 940.12/20 (LC 160)).
Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Works by Roy Lichtenstein, November 29, 1966–January 3, 1967 (Henning 1966) (ed. 940.7/20[2] (LC 155)).
Galerie Hans Neuendorf, Hamburg, Germany, Wandteppiche von Henry Pearson, Jim Dine, Roy Lichtenstein, Ernest Trova, Richard Anuszkiewicz, Mel Ramos, Robert Indiana, Andy Warhol, Tom Wesselmann, George Ortmann, Nicholas Krushenick, Paul Brach, opened January 4, 1967. (ill. on exhibition announcement) (ed. 940.12/20 (LC 160)).
Pasadena Art Museum, Pasadena, California, Roy Lichtenstein, April 18–May 28, 1967 (Coplans 1967a). Traveled to: Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minn., June 23–July 30, 1967 (ed. 940.19/20).
Centro Internazionale delle Arti e del Costume, Palazzo Grassi, Venice, Italy, Campo vitale: Mostra internazionale d'arte contemporanea, July 27–October 9, 1967 (either ed. 2/20 or ed.12/20; not in cat.) (Marinotti 1967).
Exhibition Hall, Trinity College, Dublin, Banners by American Artists, November 11–December 2, 1967 (Trinity College 1967) (ed. 940.11/20 (LC 159)).
Georgia Museum of Art, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, The Visual Assault, 1967*, November 5–December 15, 1967 (ed. 940.7/20[2] (LC 155)).
Documenta, Museum Fridericianum, Orangerie im Auepark, Kassel, Germany, 4. Documenta: Internationale Ausstellung, June 27–October 6, 1968 (Documenta 1968, p. 82 b/w ill. [vol. 2]).
Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, Connecticut, Art of the 60's: Selections from the Collection of Hanford Yang, September 29–December 22, 1968 (Aldrich Museum 1968, no. 57 b/w ill.).
Art Gallery, Douglass College, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, The Gun Show, November 24–December 19, 1968.
Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Violence in Recent American Art, November 8, 1968–January 12, 1969 (Van der Marck 1968, no. 19 b/w ill.).
New Gallery, Cleveland, Roy Lichtenstein: Major Works—Graphics—Posters, February 15–March 12, 1969 (ed. 940.7/20[2] (LC 155)).
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Roy Lichtenstein, September 19–November 9, 1969. Traveled to: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, Kansas City, Mo., December 18, 1969–January 16, 1970; Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Ill., February 7–March 22, 1970; Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Wash., April 10–May 17, 1970; Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, Columbus, Ohio, July 9–August 30, 1970 (ed. 940.7/20[2] (LC 155)).
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Multiples: The First Decade, March 5–April 4, 1971 (Tancock 1971) (ed. 940.15/20 (LC 165)).
Galerie Beyeler, Basel, Switzerland, Roy Lichtenstein, June 19–September 8, 1973 (Beyeler [Galerie] 1973) (ed. 940.7/20[2] (LC 155)).
Casino Knokke-Heist, Knokke, Belgium, Leo Castelli's Artists: USA 1970–1990, June 25–September 2, 1990 (Hahn 1990) (ed. 940.7/20[2] (LC 155)).
Ubu Gallery, New York, The Gun: Icon of Twentieth Century Art, January 27–March 9, 1996 (ed. 940.5/20[1] (LC 153)).
University Art Museum, California State University, Long Beach, California, The Great American Pop Art Store: Multiples of the Sixties, August 26–October 26, 1997 (Glenn, C. 1997). Traveled to: Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum, Rutgers University, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, N.J., November 22, 1997–February 22, 1998; Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Md., March 25–May 31, 1998; Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts, Montgomery, Ala., June 27–August 23, 1998; Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn., October 3–December 6, 1998; Marion Koogler McNay Art Museum, San Antonio, Tex., January 18–March 14, 1999; Wichita Art Museum, Witchita, Kans., April 11–June 6, 1999; Muskegon Museum of Art, Muskegon, Mich., July 29–September 12, 1999; Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha, Neb., October 23, 1999–January 9, 2000; Lowe Art Museum, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla., February 3–March 26, 2000; Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio, June 4–August 13, 2000 (ed. 940.5/20[1] (LC 153)).
Círculo de Bellas Artes, Madrid, La Odisea Americana, 1945–1980, April 13–May 30, 2004 (Foster, S. 2004). Traveled to: Domus Artium, Salamanca, Spain, June 10–July 31, 2004; Kiosco Alfonso, A Coruña, Spain, September 2–October 2, 2004; QCC Art Gallery, Queensborough Community College, City University of New York, Queens, N.Y., October 24, 2004–January 15, 2005 (ed. 940.5/20[1] (LC 153)).
University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor, Michigan, "Pop!", June 4–September 25, 2005.
Scuderie del Quirinale, Rome, Pop Art: 1956–1968, October 24, 2007–January 27, 2008 (Guadagnini 2007) (ed. 940.5/20[1] (LC 153)).
DePaul University Art Museum, Chicago, 1968: Art and Politics in Chicago, September 18–November 23, 2008 (DePaul 2008) (ed. 940.7/20[1]).
Fondazione Prada, Venice, Italy, The Small Utopia: Ars multiplicata, July 6–November 25, 2012 (Celant 2012) (ed. 940.unkn01).
Jewish Museum, New York, Revolution of the Eye: Modern Art and the Birth of American Television, May 1–September 20, 2015 (Berger 2015). Traveled to: NSU Art Museum, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., October 24, 2015–February 28, 2016; Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, Mass., April 9–July 31, 2016; Center for Art, Design, and Visual Culture, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Md., October 20, 2016–January 8, 2017; Smart Museum of Art, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., February 16–June 11, 2017 (ed. 940.9/20 (LC 157)).
Museo delle Cultre, Milan, Roy Lichtenstein. Multiple Visions, May 1–September 8, 2019 (Mercurio 2019a). Traveled to: Musée des Beaux-Arts, Mons, Belgium, December 5, 2020–April 18, 2021 (as Roy Lichtenstein: Visions Multiples) (Mercurio 2020a) (ed. 940.16/20 (LC 166)).
Literature
"Record Crowds See 'Pop', 'Op' Art Show." Ithaca [N.Y.] Journal, May 10, 1965, p. unavail. b/w ill. (ed. 940.7/20[2] (LC 155)).
"O Say Can You See." Newsweek 65, no. 2 (January 11, 1965), p. 78 b/w ill.
Haydon, Harold. "Art: Works A-Poppin' at Ravinia." Chicago Sun-Times, July 4, 1965, p. 3 b/w ill. (ed. 940.18/20 (LC 308)).
Amaya, Mario. Pop As Art: A Survey of the New Super-Realism. London: Studio Vista, 1965, n.p. facing p. 85 color ill., front cover color ill.
Hudson, Andrew. "Op! Pop! Bang!" Washington Post, February 13, 1966, p. G1 b/w ill.
"Painting: Kidding Everybody." Time 89, no. 25 (June 23, 1967), n.p. facing p. 72 color ill. (ed. 940.19/20).
Hamilton, Richard. "Roy Lichtenstein." Studio International 175, no. 896 (January 1968), p. 21 color ill.
Waldman, Diane. Roy Lichtenstein. New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 1969. Exhibition catalogue (1969 New York Guggenheim), no. 106 p. 91 b/w ill. [not exhibited].
Hermand, Jost. Pop International: Eine kritische Analyse. Frankfurt am Main: Athenäum, 1971, no. 32 n.p. facing p. 104 b/w ill.
Waldman, Diane. Roy Lichtenstein. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1971, no. 131 n.p. b/w ill. (ed. 940.7/20[2] (LC 155)).
Palmé, Martine. "L'Amérique au microscope." Les Nouvelles Litteraires (Paris) (February 17, 1975), p. 6 b/w ill.
Cowart, Jack. Roy Lichtenstein 1970–1980. New York: Hudson Hills Press in association with the St. Louis Art Museum, 1981. Exhibition catalogue (1981 St. Louis Art Museum), p. 90 b/w ill. [not exhibited].
Cowart, Jack. Roy Lichtenstein 1970–1980. Translated from the English by Nicolas Hepp. Munich: Prestel Verlag, 1982. Exhibition catalogue (1981 St. Louis Art Museum), no. 80 p. 90 b/w ill. [not exhibited].
Carlin, John, and Sheena Wagstaff. The Comic Art Show: Cartoons in Painting and Popular Culture. New York: Fantagraphics Books, 1983. Exhibition catalogue (1983 New York Whitney Downtown), p. 69 b/w ill. [not exhibited].
Cowart, Jack. Roy Lichtenstein 1970–1980. Tokyo: Seibu Museum of Art, 1983. Exhibition catalogue (1981 St. Louis Art Museum), p. 86 b/w ill. [not exhibited].
Stich, Sidra. Made in U.S.A.: An Americanization in Modern Art, the '50s and '60s. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. Exhibition catalogue (1987 Berkeley UC Art Museum), no. 174 p. 178 color ill. [not exhibited].
Hendra, Tony. Brad '61: Portrait of the Artist As a Young Man. New York: Pantheon Books, 1993, p. 77 color ill.
Schwarz, Dieter, ed. Multiples, Inc,1965–1992. New York: Marian Goodman Gallery; Cologne: Buchhandlung Walther and Franz König, 2021. Exhibition catalogue (2021 New York M. Goodman), p. 11 color ill. [not exhibited]. (ed. 940.unkn01).

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The Catalogue Raisonné is subject to change.  RLF endeavored to make the Catalogue Raisonné as complete as possible as of the time of online publication.  As new information and images emerge regarding the works of Roy Lichtenstein, RLF will work to make updates to the Catalogue Raisonné.  

Inclusions in Catalogue Raisonné (or Lack Thereof)

Neither RLF nor the Estate of Roy Lichtenstein authenticates artworks, and the inclusion of an artwork in the Catalogue Raisonné does not serve as a warranty or guarantee of that artwork’s authenticity or provenance.  In addition, the fact that an artwork has not been included in the Catalogue Raisonné does not necessarily mean that such artwork is not by Roy Lichtenstein.

Copyright & Trademark

“ROY LICHTENSTEIN” is a federally registered trademark of the Estate of Roy Lichtenstein. All other trademarks and trade dress displayed in this website are trademarks and trade dress of the Estate of Roy Lichtenstein, RLF, or of their respective owners. “ROY LICHTENSTEIN” and other trademarks and trade dress used in the website may not be used as trademarks without the prior written authorization of the Estate of Roy Lichtenstein or the respective owners of the trademarks.

All of the content featured or displayed on the Site and in the Catalogue Raisonné, including, but not limited to, images of works of art by Roy Lichtenstein, text, photographs and other materials, as well as the selection and arrangement of materials in the Site (collectively, “Content”), is protected by copyright law and owned by the Estate of Roy Lichtenstein, RLF, or of their respective licensors. 

Except as expressly set forth in these Terms, nothing contained on the Site shall be construed as conferring any license or right to any copyright or trademark used on this Site.

Permitted Uses

Provided that you comply with these Terms, we grant you a personal, revocable, limited, non-exclusive, royalty-free, non-transferable, non-sublicensable license to use this Site solely for your personal, non-commercial, educational and research purposes.  You may not make any other use of the Site or any of the Content without prior written permission from RLF or the entity(ies) or individual(s) RLF designates for purposes of granting or withholding the relevant permission(s).  To request such permission, please contact [email protected]. 

The images, text and source material in the Site may be protected by third-party copyright or trademark.  No license is granted to you under any such third-party rights.

Prohibited Uses

Notwithstanding the foregoing, you may not (i) download, or attempt to download, any reproduction or image of any work of art, (ii) remove or alter any copyright, trademark or other proprietary notices from any of the Content or (iii) modify, translate, decompile, create derivative work(s) of, copy, distribute, or otherwise use in any manner not expressly permitted herein, the Site.  Specifically, and by way of illustration and not limitation, you may not separate any graphics, photographs or other elements from the accompanying text or material in the Site without the prior express written permission of RLF and/or its licensor(s). 

You may not use the Site in any way that violates any applicable federal, state, local or international law or regulation (including, without limitation, any laws regarding the export of data or software to and from the US or other countries).

You may not use any “deep-link”, “page-scrape”, “robot”, “spider” or other automatic device, program, algorithm or methodology, or any similar or equivalent manual process, to access, extract, acquire, copy or monitor any portion of the Site or any Content, or in any way reproduce or circumvent the navigational structure or presentation of the Site or any Content, to obtain or attempt to obtain any materials, documents or information through any means not purposely made available through the Site.  

No Content accessed from the Site may be used to train artificial intelligence models or tools or otherwise for generating output or other content using artificial intelligence technologies, or to permit others to do the same.  

You further agree that you will not:

  1. Interfere with the proper functioning of the Site;
  2. Attempt to gain unauthorized access to any portion or feature of the Site, or any other systems or networks connected to the Site or to any RLF server, or to any of the services offered on or through the Site, by hacking, password “mining” or any other illegitimate means; or
  3. Probe, scan or test the vulnerability of the Site or any network connected to the Site, nor breach the security or authentication measures on the Site or any network connected to the Site. 

Registered Users

If you are 18 years old or older, you may register to become a registered user (“Registered User”) and access the Site. You are responsible for all activity under your Registered User account.  You agree to provide accurate, current and complete information at all times, and to update it in a timely manner.  You may not transfer or otherwise do anything to give another person access to your Registered User account.  You must notify us immediately at [email protected] if you become aware that anyone has gained unauthorized access to your Registered User account.  You represent and warrant that all information you provide as a Registered User is accurate and complete.

We reserve the right, in our sole discretion, to suspend or terminate your registered access at any time if you have not complied with the Terms or for other reasons that we determine in good faith are necessary or appropriate, including if we suspect you are using or attempting to use the Site in any way that violates these Terms or any applicable laws or regulations.

Third-Party Content and Links to Third-Party Websites 

The Site may contain content of, or links to websites controlled by, third parties (“Third-Party Websites”).  We are not responsible for Third-Party Websites or their content, activities or privacy practices.  Any information you share or actions you take on Third-Party Websites are governed by those websites’ terms of use and privacy statements, which you should review carefully to learn about their practices.  The inclusion of third-party content or links to Third-Party Websites on our Site does not imply our endorsement of Third-Party Websites, their content, or any associated organization or activity.  We make no representation or warranty whatsoever about the nature of Third-Party Websites and if you decide to access any other websites linked to or from the Site, you do so entirely at your own risk.  WE ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE, OR LIABLE TO YOU OR ANY THIRD PARTY, FOR THE CONTENT OR ACCURACY OF ANY MATERIALS PROVIDED BY ANY THIRD PARTIES.

Frames; Metatags

Unless you obtain our prior written consent in each case, you may not: (A) frame any Content on any other website; or (B) use metatags or any other “hidden text” that incorporates the “ROY LICHTENSTEIN” trademarks, marks confusingly similar to our trademarks, or our name.

Additional Disclaimers

THE SITE, CONTENT, AND LINKS AVAILABLE THROUGH IT ARE AVAILABLE “AS IS” AND “AS AVAILABLE.”  WE DO NOT WARRANT THAT THE SITE OR ANY CONTENT AND LINKS AVAILABLE THROUGH IT WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED OR ERROR-FREE.  THERE MAY BE DELAYS, OMISSIONS, INTERRUPTIONS AND INACCURACIES IN CONTENT AVAILABLE ON THE SITE.  WE MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES ABOUT THE ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, TIMELINESS, RELIABILITY, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY CONTENT AVAILABLE ON THE SITE OR CONTENT OR SERVICES AVAILABLE THROUGH LINKS TO THIRD-PARTY WEB SITES.  WE RESERVE THE RIGHT TO CORRECT ANY ERRORS OR OMISSIONS ON THE SITE AND IN ITS CONTENT.  IF YOU RELY ON THE SITE AND ANY CONTENT AVAILABLE THROUGH IT, YOU DO SO ENTIRELY AT YOUR OWN RISK.

TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED UNDER LAW, RLF DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE SITE AND ANY CONTENT OR INFORMATION THAT IS AVAILABLE THROUGH IT, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE (EVEN IF THAT PURPOSE HAS BEEN DISCLOSED).

ALTHOUGH RLF INTENDS TO TAKE REASONABLE STEPS TO PREVENT THE INTRODUCTION OF VIRUSES, WORMS, “TROJAN HORSES,” OR OTHER MALICIOUS CODE TO THE SITE, RLF DOES NOT GUARANTEE OR WARRANT THAT THE SITE, OR CONTENT THAT MAY BE AVAILABLE THROUGH IT, ARE FREE FROM SUCH DESTRUCTIVE FEATURES.  RLF IS NOT LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES OR HARM ATTRIBUTABLE TO SUCH FEATURES.

Limitation of Liability

RLF AND ITS AFFILIATES, MANAGERS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES, CONTRACTORS, AGENTS, VOLUNTEERS, AND ADVISORS, WHETHER IN SUCH CAPACITIES OR INDIVIDUALLY, AND THE HEIRS, SUCCESSORS AND ASSIGNS OF EACH OF THEM (TOGETHER, THE “COVERED PARTIES”) ARE NOT LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM OF ANY NATURE WHATSOEVER BASED ON LOSS OR INJURY BECAUSE OF ERRORS, OMISSIONS, INTERRUPTIONS, OR INACCURACIES IN THE SITE OR ANY CONTENT AVAILABLE THROUGH IT, INCLUDING LOSS OR INJURY THAT RESULTS FROM YOUR BREACH OF ANY PROVISION OF THESE TERMS.

UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES WILL RLF OR THE COVERED PARTIES BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES (INCLUDING LOST REVENUES OR PROFITS, LOSS OF BUSINESS, OR LOSS OF DATA) ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH YOUR USE OF THE SITE OR CONTENT OR THESE TERMS, REGARDLESS OF THE THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), CONTRACT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL OR EQUITABLE THEORY, EVEN IF RLF HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.  OUR AGGREGATE LIABILITY TO YOU FOR ANY USE OF, OR INABILITY TO USE, THE SITE OR CONTENT IS LIMITED TO $1000. SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE LIMITATION OF LIABILITY FOR THESE KINDS OF DAMAGES, SO THESE LIMITATIONS OR EXCLUSIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.

Indemnification

You agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless RLF and the Covered Parties from and against all demands, loss, liability, claims or expenses (including attorneys’ fees) made against RLF and the Covered Parties arising out of your use of the Site, its Content, or violation of these Terms.

Infringing Material

RLF respects the intellectual property of others and expects users to do the same.  As to allegedly infringing copyrighted works, we comply with the take down and counter notification provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (“DMCA”), 17 U.S.C.A. § 512, as set forth below. 

We reserve the right to remove or disable access to any Content claimed to be infringing, at any time at our sole discretion, without notice or liability.  In appropriate circumstances, we will also terminate users of the Site who are repeat infringers.

If you believe that Content has been used in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, please provide our designated agent, whose contact information is listed below, with a written notice containing all of the following information (“DMCA Notice”):

  • A physical or electronic signature of a person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed;
  • Identification of the copyrighted work claimed to have been infringed;
  • Identification of the Content that is claimed to be infringing or to be the subject of infringing activity, and information reasonably sufficient to permit us to locate such Content on our Site (such as the URL to each page on the Site containing allegedly infringing material);
  • Information reasonably sufficient to permit us to contact you, such as an address, telephone number, and, if available, an email address;
  • a statement that you have a good faith belief that use of the Content in the manner complained of is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law; and
  • a statement that the information in your notice is accurate and, under penalty of perjury, that you are authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.

Our agent designated to receive DMCA Notices may be contacted as follows:

[email protected]

Changes to the Terms

RLF may change these Terms from time to time by posting an updated version on this web page, or, if we determine that it is appropriate, we may provide other notice to you.  Your continued use of the Site after we post updated Terms means that you accept and agree to such Terms.  We recommend checking back on this web page regularly if you use the Site.

Termination

We reserve the right to terminate the Site, these Terms, and any Content, and your access to the Site and/or the Content, at any time without notice, for any reason.  The “Reliance on Information Posted,” “Copyright & Trademark,” “Inclusions in Catalogue Raisonné (or Lack Thereof),” “Additional Disclaimers,” “Limitation of Liability,” “Indemnification,” and “Governing Law” sections of these Terms (along with this provision and any other provision that by its terms contemplates survival) survive any termination of these Terms.

Governing Law

These Terms are the complete agreement between you and RLF regarding your use of the Site and is governed by applicable federal laws and the laws of the State of New York applicable to agreements made and completely performed there.  Any dispute arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction and venue of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York located in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York or, only if such court does not have subject-matter jurisdiction, the Supreme Court of the State of New York, New York County.

You irrevocably agree to bring any claim or dispute relating to your use of the Site and these Terms exclusively in the state and federal courts located in New York, to submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of those courts, and to waive any jurisdictional, venue, inconvenient forum, or other objections to those courts.  

Other

Section titles and headings are for convenience only and have no legal or contractual effect.  The failure of RLF to exercise or enforce any right or provision of the Terms shall not constitute a waiver of such right or provision.  If a court of competent jurisdiction determines that any provision of these Terms is unenforceable for any reason, then that provision will be deleted and the remaining provisions of these Terms will be enforceable to the fullest extent permitted by law.

Questions

Please email [email protected] with any questions you may have about these Terms.